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Native American studies. Category Portal. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. By the time she was executed at the guillotine on October 16, nine months after her husband, King Louis XVI, was killed the same way , she had been disparaged as a frivolous, selfish, and immoral woman whose lavish lifestyle had increased economic inequality.
To be clear, Marine Antoinette was no saint. She also wore flour on her wigs while many French people went without bread. Yet not all of the criticisms of the queen were warranted, or even true.
And in some ways, Marie Antoinette is still misunderstood. Here are five facts about the famous queen. Scholars have noted that since Louis XVI had no mistresses, Marie Antoinette was subject to an extra level of disparagement. But without a mistress to ridicule, political pornographers targeted the queen. By that point, there were two murder cases — one person dead in Spokane, Wash. And Mr. Hall, a once-seemingly untouchable leader, was under investigation by his tribal council because of his connections to an Oregon man who would later be charged with murder for hire in the two deaths.
Hall voted to approve the payment, but because he did not think he had any conflict of interest, he said, he never disclosed his business relationship to the company. The relationship was personal, too: Mr. Henrikson and his wife vacationed in Hawaii with the tribal chairman and his family. Hall considers the baby his grandson. In an interview last week, Mr. Hall said Mr. Hall was ill and distracted, bringing flowers and a contract to his hospital room to be signed. In January, Mr. Henrikson, Mr.
The revelations jolted Fort Berthold into a tumultuous year of questioning and change. Their leader was part of the industry, seeking and getting contracts from oil companies that operated under his watch. Hudson said. Most of the 14, enrolled tribal members, about half of whom live on the reservation, do not receive significant oil royalties.
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The tribal government does, along with hundreds of millions in oil tax revenue, and many here appreciate the potential benefits for the reservation itself. But so far, apart from a significant rise in jobs, which often go to transient workers, many see deterioration rather than improvement in their standard of living. They endure intense truck traffic, degraded roads, increased crime, strained services and the pollution from spills, flares and illegal dumping. Deep-seated problems can be hard to fix — a life expectancy of 57, for instance, compared with 79 for North Dakotans as a whole.
The three affiliated tribes on Fort Berthold have seen their territorial lands shrivel over time to under a million acres. For decades, they struggled to recover from their forced relocation in the midth century when their prime farmland was flooded to create the Lake Sakakawea reservoir for a new dam. By the first decade of the 21st century, however, the tribal government, deep in debt, experienced a sudden change of fortune.
Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood - Wikipedia
Fort Berthold found itself atop a particularly sweet spot of the Bakken shale formation. At least 1, wells have been drilled and hydraulically fractured, or fracked, here so far. In an interview at the expo last spring, Mr. Hall said that he saw fracking as the ticket to self-determination.
Fifty-eight with a long, graying ponytail, Mr. Hall wore a beaded medallion with a red-tipped arrow, the Indian name he inherited from his father. Steven A.
Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?
Kelly, a former tribal lawyer under Mr. Hall grew up on the reservation, on a cattle and buffalo ranch in Mandaree where he still lives. He left Fort Berthold for college, where he was a basketball star, and then graduate school, returning home to teach and eventually to lead the school district in Mandaree. Starting in , he served two consecutive four-year terms as tribal chairman and rose to prominence as a national leader, too, twice elected president of the National Congress of American Indians. Kelly said.
The boom arrived in Fort Berthold between Mr. He started his company, Maheshu Energy, to broker leasing deals. Maheshu then morphed into a business offering services like well site construction, rig transport and trucking. When Mr. Hall was re-elected tribal chairman in , an ethics ordinance prohibited leaders from using their offices for private gain, but it did not explicitly bar them from owning oil-related companies. Kelly, in turn, found himself losing rig service contracts to the chairman.
In spring , Mr. Kelly addressed the seven-member tribal council. Hall was violating conflict-of-interest rules. Indeed, the council had never created a board to enforce its code, and so members who sought to pursue complaints regularly confronted this Catch Kelly urged the council to take up the issue itself.
Blood and Betrayal: King Philip’s War
And when you have that situation, basically you have a broken government. By early , James Henrikson had a string of marriages, failed businesses and arrests in several states behind him. In Oregon, he had been convicted on felony charges of theft, burglary, attempted assault and unlawful manufacture of marijuana. In Washington, he had filed for and been denied bankruptcy protection largely because he had tried to hide assets.
Newly released from jail, Mr. Henrikson set his sights on the booming Bakken, and specifically on the reservation. Still on probation, he registered Blackstone Building Group under the name of his girlfriend, Sarah Creveling, and persuaded investors to set them up with some trucks.
Indian Removal Act
To gain priority access to oil contracts on Fort Berthold, Mr. Henrikson and Ms. Creveling, who are white, needed a native partner. Henrikson contacted Mr. Kelly, who agreed to a subcontracting deal. Like others, Mr. Arey, who was also impressed by Mr. In late , Mr. Arey was recruited to work as a truck dispatcher for Mr. Henrickson and Ms. Creveling, who had married. Before long, Mr.